Today’s world commerce around technologies like AI (Machine Learning, NLP-NLU), etc. and it’s quite obvious that devices area unit being factory-made to be good enough to capitalize these potencies. One such service provided by Amazon, called Alexa, leverages the capabilities of those technologies and builds on prime it. Anyone, the World Health Organization is keen to be aware of Alexa, this text could be helpful for them that what’s Alexa and the way it works. during this article, 1st a part of this series, I’m describing different elements and their details what all build Alexa operating followed by high-level Alexa design, whereas within the next half, I will be able to discuss regarding Alexa technical design, associate degree example application together with a list of dependencies needed to create that example application and deploying application on Alexa App Server.


Alexa (as an associate degree AI assistant) is conferred as a bridge between man and machine. based mostly upon AI, it allows humans to speak to machines by taking directions from them as associate degree action or a command or a matter. Earlier, Echo speakers need to carry a however to whereas speech wake word to activate a tool (Alexa powered) to cater to user’s request but currently there’s no want for such a button needed in echo speaker recently to wake. Moreover, Amazon is advanced to produce Alexa’s potential in good devices that might be a phone, pill, or appliance. to induce into more details regarding however Alexa works, first, you’re needed to know the language and importance of every part.

What is an Echo speaker:

Echo speaker (or Amazon Echo) may be a speaker device employed by a user to talk to Amazon’s personal and intelligent assistant Alexa to pass directions for a task. These devices are units on the market in several models and activate by a really specific wake word. These devices area unit factory-made with pre-configured wake word/s.

What is a Wake Word:

The wake word activates the associate degree echo device to concentrate on the user’s directions. These might be sometimes pronounced as Alexa, Echo, or laptop.

What is Invocation Name:

This is a keyword that needs to prompt specific Alexa skills. All custom skills should need an associate degree invocation name to induce begin the interaction. A developer will amendment the invocation name throughout the event of talent however once talent gets certified and revealed then the invocation name can’t be modified more. Use of invocation name abides by Alexa policies on the market below “Policy testing for Alexa skills”. for instance, invocation name should not violate against holding rights of an individual or a corporation as an entity, etc. Invocation name might be well related to a matter, command, or action. Below is an associate degree example of invocation name during a sentence.

“Hey, Alexa are you able to begin action show eradicator 3”

“Alexa” is a wake word during this instruction.

“Action Movie” is that the invocation name here.

As a policy. invocation name may solely be of 1 word if it should relate to a complete or holding. the great invocation name ought to be a compound of 2 or a lot of words however their area unit a lot of conditions around it, relying upon a language talent like German.

What is Utterance:

A vocalization is what the user needs Alexa to execute. within the on top of example, “Terminator 3” is vocalization. Utterances area unit nothing however the phrases that users use whereas instructing Alexa. The response from Alexa is set and based mostly upon the known vocalization requested by the user.

What is NLP:

NLP refers to the tongue process within the technology world and a set of AI. it’s liable for interactions between humans and processed devices. This drives a posh task of analyzing and process tongue, employed by humans, to be understood by computers. this permits computers to know, analyze, method, and respond to humans by the tongue. This makes the means potential for a person and machine communication within the kind of text or speech and after all more.

What is NLU:

NLU stands for tongue Understanding, maybe a set of informatics, and will be termed because of the beginning in decoding the human tongue. This will additionally come back below the umbrella of AI. Understanding the human tongue (many languages during this world) by a process formula may be a discouraging task. A language might be native to an individual and what makes it even tougher is that the formation of a sentence. maybe as a result of the fact that constant sentence can be shaped by several combos and permutations of words, that complete a sentence in any order. Either it’s a speech or text formation. Here, process power comes into play to rewrite significant words of a sentence so pass it to more process logic (NLP) so on respond to the user with the most applicable response against the request created by the user. this needs scaling of servers, which is finished by the foremost potential means of cloud computing and Amazon carries that capability. NLU plays another major role by deeply understanding the context of a sentence and identifies what’s a verb, noun, or tense utilized in a sentence. This method is understood as “Part of Speech Tagging” (POS).

What is Deep Learning:

Deep learning may be a set of machine learning. Deep learning may be a coaching method that caters to the acoustic model. this is often accomplished by shut observation on however audio and transcripts area unit paired. Deep learning is well compared with, however, the human brain works. because the human brain has neurons, that help the brain to require the choice. Similarly, deep learning works with the net of artificial neural networks. the info to be processed is of big quantity and unstructured, therefore Deep Learning being a set of Machine Learning helps machines to method knowledge during a non-linear means. Deep Learning may be a continuous method, that is obtaining evolved day by day, and plenty of corporations are endowed into the analysis of this space.
Alexa Architecture:

Alexa, which may be a cloud-based service from Amazon, has the subsequent elements in its kitty to represent AN finish to finish the design. Below may be a high-level delineate depiction of Alexa’s design followed by some details of associated elements.

Echo Device:

This is to require instruction from the user and it’s been already explained on top of. As, Amazon already keeps on advancing regarding taking user’s directions from good devices like phones, tablets, and good home appliances, this may be eliminating the necessity of mistreatment echo speakers going forward.

Signal Processing:

When users speak over Echo speaker, it’s not a straightforward job to spot absolutely the sound within the way field setting. There may well be several faux signals say, noises around sort of a TV/Music sound, etc. It’s important to fetch the proper voice command, therefore the signal process plays a vital role here. this is often accomplished by employing a variety of microphones (known as beam-forming) and cancelling or deducting/reducing signals of noises by the acoustic echo to create certain the sole signal of importance ought to stay for the additional process.

Alexa Voice Service:

This can be thought of because of the brain of Alexa. this is often a set of services say arthropod genus and tools. These service area units are organized around Alexa (kinda AI assistant). This service holds the responsibility of understanding human linguistic communication by taking voice commands from users via an echo device. As AI has machine learning beneath, that additional has capabilities like information processing – NLU. This resolves advanced voice commands with advanced process power and deep learning algorithms.

Alexa Skills:

The services in Alexa Voice Service, area unit nothing, however, Alexa skills. relying upon a voice command, a most applicable service gets invoked and cater users with the foremost significant response for user’s request. Alexa skills development may be a niche space that needs developers to implement commanding solutions. These skills are unit key to success whereas responding to users with expected results. this is often the element, that chooses by gazing at invocation name and vocalization in an exceedingly voiced sentence, that successively, concludes the user’s input, processes it, and responds expectedly. The vocalization is the phrases that encapsulate the user’s desired result.

Device Cloud:

This receives inputs from Alexa Voice Service (a response by Alexa Skills primarily based upon the user’s input received). Then, it sends response command signals to AN applicable device connected on-line with a tool cloud to accomplish the action, as educated by the user. for instance, this might be the beginning of AN air conditioning or taking part in a picture show on TV.

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